Wines & varieties

The dynamics of the Peloponnese vineyard is clearly reflected both on the extensive area it spans as well as on the diversity of its varieties.
25,74% of all Greek PDO wines is produced in Peloponnese.
91% of the vineyard consists of Greek grape varieties.

WINES

7 PDO WINES IN PELOPONNESE

PDO Patras
The wine producing zone of PDO Patras stretches over semi-mountainous and mountainous areas of northeastern and central Achaia. This is the most extensive, and mostly undivided, PDO Greek wine zone. The Aigialia highlands is probably the most beautiful and beneficial area for viticulture, where Roditis variety thrives.
Variety:
100% Roditis
Wine type:
Dry, semi-dry and semi-sweet white
PDO Mantinia
The wine zone PDO Mantinia stretches over the Arcadia plateau at an altitude of over 650 meters. Grapes mature slowly and late on the plateau and the surrounding slopes. The name of this PDO wine comes from Ancient Mantinia.
Varieties:
Moschofilero (at least 85%), Asproudes.
Actually, the PDO Mantinia wine consists of 100% Moschofilero.
Wine type:
Dry white
PDO Nemea
PDO Nemea zone is the only one in Greece that extends into two regional parts: mainly in the south-central part of Corinthia and the northwestern part of Argolis. This wine is known as the “Fliasios oenos” of the Ancient Greeks and is linked to the myth of Hercules who was worshipped in the area and had his own sanctuary; traditionally, PDO Nemea means “Hercules’ blood”. Agiorgitiko, a variety of PDO Nemea wine may have been named by Nemea’s old name, Agios Georgios.
Variety:
100% Agiorgitiko
Wine type:
Dry, semi-sweet and sweet red
PDO Monemvassia-Malvasia
PDO Monemvassia-Malvasia zone is in the southeast of Laconia (peninsula Epidaurus Limiras and Cape Maleas) and revives the most popular wine of the middle ages, Malvasia wine. It matures in barrels to oxidize for at least two years, or for four years or any number which is a multiple of four.
Varieties:
Monemvassia (at least 51%), Assyrtiko, Asproudes, Kydonitsa
Wine type:
Sweet white, from sun-dried grapes (sun-dried, vin liastos/vin de raisin passerile), liqueur wine from sun-dried grapes (liastos, vin de liqueur de raisin passerile).
PDO Muscat of Patras
The wine zone PDO Muscat of Patras is located in Achaia. It is related to sweet wines and is smaller than PDO Patras. These wines can be sweet (vin naturellement doux) and natural sweet (vin doux naturel-vin de liqueur). The grand cru indication on the label shows that grapes are exclusively from privately-owned vineyards of a lower yield.
Variety:
100% Muscat white
Wine type:
Sweet white
PDO Muscat of Rio Patras
The small wine zone PDO Muscat of Rio Patras is situated east of Patras and Rio, in Achaia, and produces some of the best sweet wines in Greece, many of which are world-class wines. These wines can be sweet (vin naturellement doux) and natural sweet (vin doux naturel-vin de liqueur). The grand cru indication on the label shows that grapes are exclusively from privately-owned vineyards of a lower yield.
Variety:
100% Muscat white
Wine type:
Sweet white
PDO Mavrodaphne of Patras
The zone for the sweet wines (vin de liqueur) PDO Mavrodaphne of Patras, which are the most popular in Greece, stretches over central-north Achaia. These wines mature for at least one year in oak barrels with a capacity of up to 1000 litres. After two years of maturation they can be labelled as Reserve, and after at least three years in barrels, and seven years in barrels and bottles in total, they are labelled as Grand Reserve.
Variety:
Mavrodaphne, Black Corinthian
Wine type:
Sweet red

3 PDO WINES IN KEFALONIA

PDO Robola
The PDO Robola Robola of Kefalonia (established in 1982) is produced exclusively from the native Greek variety Robola on the island of Kefallonia. Despite its vulnerability - which requires barren, preferably mountainous soils, it is a high-yielding variety. Robola wine is characterized by the presence of minerals, characteristic aromas of citrus, moderate body and excellent acidity.
PDO Mavrodaphne of Kefalonia
PDO Mavrodaphne of Kefalonia wines (established in 1971) can be produced with grapes from the Mavrodaphne variety which is also blended with the black Corinthian variety. In the case of blending, the quantity of the Mavrodaphne variety must be more than 50% of the total grape quantity. The Mavrodaphne clone in Kefalonia is different to that of Achaia. It features smaller grapes and is more sensitive. The wine type we get from PDO Mavrodaphne of Kefalonia is sweet red.
PDO Muscat of Kefalonia
PDO wines labelled as Muscat of Kefalonia are produced with the small-berried clone of the white muscat variety. The vineyards are located mainly in the western part of the island. The PDO Muscat of Kefalonia zone was established in 1971.
The PDO Muscat of Kefalonia (Vin Νaturellement Doux) is a sweet white wine from sun-dried grapes that have been laid in the sun or in the shade for partial dehydration. The sugars and alcohol of the end product originate exclusively from the grapes used in the vinification process.

3 PGI WINES IN KEFALONIA

PGI Slopes of Ainos
The PGI Slopes of Ainos zone, established in 1997, lies at the regional unit of Kefallonia, at the southern part of the Ionian Sea; it is the boundary of the areas of Agios Nikolaos, Arginia, Markopoulo, Xenopoulo, Pastra belonging to the municipal community of Eleios Pronon, and the area of Grizata belonging to the municipal community of Sami, on the slopes of Mount Ainos.
Varieties:
Goustilidi (Vostilidi), Tsaousi, Mavrodaphne
Wine type:
Dry white
Dry red
PGI Mantzavinata
The PGI Mantzavinata zone, established in 1996, lies at the regional unit of Kefalonia, at the southern part of the Ionian Sea; it comprises the boundary of the area of Mantzavinata of Katogi that belongs to the local community of Paliki.
Varieties:
Goustilidi (Vostilidi), Tsaousi, Araklino, Theiako.
Wien type:
Dry white
Dry rosé
Dry red
PGI Metaxata
The PGI Metaxata zone, established in 1996, lies at the regional unit of Kefallonia, at the southern part of the Ionian Sea; it is the area of Monastiria at the village of Metaxata that belongs to the local community of Livathou.
Variety:
Thiniatiko
Wine type:
Dry red

16 PGI WINES IN PELOPONNESE

PGI Peloponnese

They were established in 1989 as Peloponnesian Local Wines. These wines are allowed to be produced with grapes or wines from the PDO and OPP and / or PGI areas in the wine region of Peloponnese.
This category includes the following types of wine:
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet white
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet red
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet rosé
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet semi-sparkling white
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet semi-sparkling rosé

Authorized wine grape varieties

The white PGI Peloponnese wine is produced from varieties such as White Aidani, Athiri, Asproudes, Assyrtiko, Kydonitsa, Lagorthi, Malagouzia, Monemvassia, white Muscat, Moschofilero (Fileri), Petroulianos, Roditis, Rokaniaris, Savvatiano, Sideritis, Skiadopoulo, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Βlanc, Arintho, Viognier, Riesling, Robola, Gewurtztraminer and Ugni blanc.

The red PGI Peloponnese wine is produced from varieties such as Agiorgitiko, Avgoustiatis, Voidomatis, Volitsa, black Thrapsa, Kolliniatiko, Mandilaria, Skylopnichtis, Fokiano, Chondromavro Kalavrytino, Psilomavro Kalavrytino, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Grenache Rouge, Merlot, Tempranillo, Mourvedre, Carignan, Syrah and Refosco.

The rosé PGI Peloponnese wine is produced from fresh grapes of varieties used in white and red wines.

The semi-sparkling dry, semi-dry and semi-sweet white wine is produced from grape varieties that are used for PGI Peloponnese wine and are grown in the wine-growing regions of Peloponnese mentioned in the respective Ministerial Decisions.

The semi-sparkling dry, semi-dry and semi-sweet rosé wine is produced from grape varieties that are used for PGI Peloponnese wine and are grown in the wine-growing regions of Peloponnese mentioned in the respective Ministerial Decisions.

All aforementioned varieties must be cultivated in the wine-growing regions of Peloponnese in order to be used for the production of PGI PELOPONNESE wine.

PGI Argolis

PGI Argolis wines were established in 2008.
Argolis has a very diverse and interesting geographical area for vine cultivation. There are numerous soil types of medium mechanical composition, sloping and well-draining. The clay soil of the area varies depending on the slope and the altitude.
Altitudes range from 50 to 600 meters with exposure mainly to the southeast. The temperate Mediterranean climate is influenced by the afternoon southern sea breeze from the Argolic Gulf, while the average rainfall level does not exceed 500 meters per year.

Authorized wine grape varieties

The white PGI Argolis wine (dry, semi-dry, sweet) is produced from varieties such as Asproudes, Assyrtiko, Roditis, Rokaniaris, Savvatiano, Moschofilero (Fileri), Chardonnay, Malagouzia and Viognier.

The red PGI Argolis wine (dry, semi-dry, sweet) is produced from varieties such as Agiorgitiko, Mavroudi (Mavrostifo), Voidomatis, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah.

The rosé PGI Argolis wine (dry, semi-dry, sweet) is produced only from fresh grapes of the following varieties: Asproudes, Assyrtiko, Roditis, Savvatiano, Moschofilero (Fileri), Malagouzia, Chardonnay, Viognier, Agiorgitiko, Voidomatis, Mavroudi (Mavrostifo), Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.

PGI Arcadia
The PGI Arcadia zone was established in 1996 and is defined by the boundaries of the Arcadia regional unit.
Arcadia vineyards are mainly located on the plateau of Mantineia. Initially, PGI Arcadia was only allowed as a white wine, but in 2009, after significant modifications, both its varietal composition and the types of wine that can be produced under this geographical indication expanded. At present, PGI Arcadia wines are produced by 4 wineries in this zone.
Varieties:
Asproudes, Moschofilero, Roditis, Robola, Savvatiano, Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Agiorgitiko, Kolliniatiko, Mavroudia, Skylopnichtis, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah.
Wine types:
Dry, sweet white
Dry and semi-dry semi-sparkling white
Dry rosé
Dry and semi-dry semi-sparkling rosé
Dry red
PGI Achaia
The defined area for the production of PGI Achaia wines includes the area within the administrative boundaries of Achaia prefecture; the vineyards are at an altitude of 20-700 meters.
The PGI Achaia zone was established in 2004. Its varietal composition expanded with the 2008 amendment, which included the remarkable effort to revive the promising red native variety of Black Kalavrytino, as well as the white variety of Lagorthi, well known for its excellent quality. PGI Arcadia wines are produced by 9 wineries in this zone.
Varieties:
Athiri, Assyrtiko, Lagorthi, Malagouzia, White Muscat, Roditis, Robola, Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Trebiano, Black Kalavrytino, Mavrodapne, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Chauvignon, Grenache Rouge, Merlot, Syrah.
Wine type:
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet white
Dry, semi-dry rosé
Dry red
PGI Ilia
The defined area for the production of PGI Ilia wines was established in 2004 and includes the areas situated within the administrative boundaries of Ilia prefecture at an altitude of 10 to 700 meters.
Varieties:
Asproudes, Assyrtiko, Roditis, Robola, Skiadopoulo, Fileri, Viognier, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Trebiano, Agiorgitiko, Avgoustiatis, Kolliniatiko, Mandilaria, Mavrodaphne, Mavroudia, Grenache Rouge, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Merlot, Mourvedre, Refosco, Syrah.
Wine type:
Dry white
Dry rosé
Dry red
PGI Corinthia
The PGI Corinthia area, established in 2000, is the boundary of Corinth regional unit, located at the northeastern edge of Peloponnese.
The production area of PGI Corinthia wines is quite extensive, beginning from an altitude of 200 meters up to 850 meters. Most of the area's vineyards stretch on slopes. The climate of the area is typical of the Mediterranean, with an average annual temperature of 17°C, and an average annual rainfall of 750 mm.
The PGI Corinthia wines are produced by 32 wineries within this zone and by 6 outside of it.
Varieties:
Asproudes up to 20%, Assyrtiko, Lagorthi, Malagouzia, Moschofilero, Roditis, Savvatiano, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Agiorgitiko, Mavroudi, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah.
Wine type:
Dry white
Dry rosé
Dry red
PGI Laconia
The PGI Laconia area, established in 2000, is the boundary of Laconia regional unit, located at the southeastern edge of Peloponnese.
Varieties:
Athiri, Assyrtiko, Aidani, Kydonitsa, Malagouzia, Monemvassia, Roditis, Petroulianos, Agiorgitiko, Thrapsa, Mandilaria, Mavroudi, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot.
Wine type:
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet white
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet rosé
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet red
PGI Messinia
The PGI Messinia area, established in 1989, is the boundary of Messinia regional unit, located at the southwestern part of Peloponnese. The vines must be at an altitude of more than 50 meters.
The PGI Messinia wines are produced by 14 wineries within this zone and 1 outside of it.
Varieties:
Assyrtiko, Lagorthi, Roditis, Fileri, Arintho, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Trebiano (up to 20%), Black Fokiano (up to 20%), Grenache Rouge, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Merlot.
Wine type:
Dry white
Dry red
PGI Klimenti
The defined area for the production of PGI Klimenti wines was established in 1996. It includes the administrative district of Klimenti Municipality in the Prefecture of Corinth and is located at an altitude of more than 600 meters.
Wine type:
Dry white
Dry red
Dry rosé
Authorized wine grape varieties:
Malagouzia, Moschofilero, Agiorgitiko Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah.
PGI Letrina
The PGI Letrina zone, established in 1993, lies in the regional unit of Ilia, at the central part of western Peloponnese and is the boundary of the municipalities of Iardanos and Pyrgos.
Varieties:
Agiorgitiko, Mavrodaphne, Merlot, Refosco, Syrah.
Wine type:
Dry red
PGI Pisatis
The PGI Pisatis zone, established in 2000, lies in the regional unit of Ilia, at the central part of western Peloponnese. It includes parts of the municipalities of Amaliada, Ancient Olympia, Iardanos, Lasion and Foloi.
Varieties:
Roditis, Fileri, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc.
Wine type:
Dry white
PGI Slopes of Aigialia
The PGI Slopes of Aigialia zone is located at the regional unit of Achaia, at the northwestern part of Peloponnese, and was established in 1997. It is the boundary of the municipalities of Aigira, Akrata, Diakopto, Aigio, Simpoliteia, and the areas of Valta, Vilivina, Goumenissa (old Vrisario), Ano & Kato Doumena, Drosato, Ano & Kato Zachlorou, Kerpini, Korfes, Petsakes and Plataniotissa of the municipality of Kalavryta. The vines must be at an altitude of more than 250 meters.
Varieties:
Lagorthi with Chardonnay (more than 60%), Volitsa (more than 60%), Cabernet Chauvignon (more than 40%) and other suggested and authorized wine grape varieties.
Wine type:
Dry white
Dry rosé
Dry red
PGI Slopes of Petroto
The PGI Slopes of Petroto zone, established in 1992, is situated at the regional unit of Achaia, at the northwestern part of Peloponnese. The area of Petroto belongs to the municipality of Messatida.
Varieties:
Mavrodaphne (up to 60%), Cabernet Sauvignon.
Wine type:
Dry red
PGI Pylia
The PGI Pylia zone, established in 1989, lies at the regional unit of Messinia, at the southwestern part of Peloponnese; it is the boundary of the municipalities of Aipia, Voufrades, Koroni, Methoni, Papaflessa, Petalidi, Pylos and Chiliochoria. The vines must be at an altitude of more than 50 meters.
Varieties:
Assyrtiko, Roditis, Chardonnay, Trebbiano.
Wine type:
Dry white
PGI Tegea
The PGI Tegea zone, established in 1993, lies at the regional unit of Arcadia, at the central part of Peloponnese, and includes parts of the municipalities of Valtetsi, North Kynouria, Skyritida, Tegea and Tripoli.
Varieties:
Cabernet Franc, Vabernet Sauvignon, Merlot.
Wine type:
Dry red
PGI Trifilia
The PGI Trifilia zone, established in 1989, lies at the regional unit of Messinia, at the southwestern part of Peloponnese; it is the boundary of the municipal communities of Aetos, Avlonas, Gargalianoi, Dorio, Eira, Kyparissia, Nestoras and Filiatra, as well as the local community of Tripila. The vines must be at an altitude from 50 to 300 meters.
Varieties:
Roditis, Fileri, Grenache Blanc, Chardonnay, Trebiano, Agiorgitiko, Grenache Rouge, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Merlot, Syrah, Tempranillo.
Wine type:
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet white
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet rosé
Dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet red

3 PGI WINES IN KEFALONIA

PGI Slopes of Ainos
The PGI Slopes of Ainos zone, established in 1997, lies at the regional unit of Kefallonia, at the southern part of the Ionian Sea; it is the boundary of the areas of Agios Nikolaos, Arginia, Markopoulo, Xenopoulo, Pastra belonging to the municipal community of Eleios Pronon, and the area of Grizata belonging to the municipal community of Sami, on the slopes of Mount Ainos.
Varieties:
Goustilidi (Vostilidi), Tsaousi, Mavrodaphne
Wine type:
Dry white
Dry red
PGI Mantzavinata
The PGI Mantzavinata zone, established in 1996, lies at the regional unit of Kefalonia, at the southern part of the Ionian Sea; it comprises the boundary of the area of Mantzavinata of Katogi that belongs to the local community of Paliki.
Varieties:
Goustilidi (Vostilidi), Tsaousi, Araklino, Theiako.
Wien type:
Dry white
Dry rosé
Dry red
PGI Metaxata
The PGI Metaxata zone, established in 1996, lies at the regional unit of Kefallonia, at the southern part of the Ionian Sea; it is the area of Monastiria at the village of Metaxata that belongs to the local community of Livathou.
Variety:
Thiniatiko
Wine type:
Dry red
Many thanks to the National Inter-professional Organisation of Wine and Vine for providing this information, which was complemented with data from the technical files of the Ministry for Rural Development.

VARIETIES

Native grape varieties
of the Peloponnesian vineyard

VARIETIES FOR WHITE WINES

Moschofilero
Moschofilero is one of Greece’s emblematic grape varieties and the most important in Peloponnese for the production of white wines. It is amongst the four grape varieties that boast a most dynamic presence for Greece in the international wine market.
Moschofilero is a varietal in the colour of the rose, yet it is vinified for white wines, some rosé and some fine sparkling ones. There are also a few white Moschofilero wines that mature in barrels from which they successfully get a noticeable body.
Peloponnese, and mainly Arcadia, is where Moschofilero thrives. It is the variety that produces excellent PDO Mantinia wines. Moschofilero is light-coloured, elegant and exotic, with lemon flower, rose and lychee aromas; it has a playful and light-bodied mouth, which often tickles with its spicy acidity.
Roditis
It is possibly the most widespread white wine variety in Greece, in terms of planting and yielding, and produces wines of various levels of quality. Despite the aforementioned yielding capacity, Roditis still remains greatly undiscovered and thrives in mountain vineyards, like those on the Aigialia highlands. It yields white dry wines such as PDO Patras.
Roditis is a rosé grape variety with different clones, like Tourkopoula and Alepou, producing some of the best wines.
It is the main variety in retsina production.
When cultivated and vinified with state-of-the-art techniques, Roditis yileds very high quality wines with clear nose, which evoke lemon, lemon flowers and white-fleshed fruits. They have a medium mouth and a refreshing acidity.
Muscat
Peloponnese is an ideal host for Muscat variety, which adapts to various heights and terroirs. Muscat produces world-class sweet wines, which constantly win awards, medals and high scores in various international assessments. Muscat is cultivated in Achaia and produces two PDO wines, PDO Muscat of Patras and PDO Muscat of Rio Patras.
Muscat wines from the Greek vineyard have explosive aromas. The typical, unique Muscat aroma is evident and, depending on the vinification process, it can be enriched with exotic aromas (e.g. lychee), aromas of dry nuts, cocoa, etc. In most cases, their taste concentration is adequately or completely balanced with the acidity, giving exquisite examples of sweet wines. Over the past few years, Kefallonia produces its exceptional dessert wines, indicated as Muscat of Kefallonia, which are produced from the small-berried clone of the white muscat variety.
Kydonitsa
The relatively few plantations of Kydonitsa are in southeastern Peloponnese (Laconia), an area known for the castles of Monemvassia and Mystras. Its cultivation revived in the 21st century. It is the most important variety cultivated in Laconia, and produces high-quality wines with wide and rapid acceptance by wine lovers.
Kydonitsa wines are yellow-green and not too bright. On the contrary, their aromas are strong, with that of ripe quince dominating - after all Kydonitsa was named after quince (“kydoni” in Greek). Lately this variety has been cultivated in other areas of Peloponnese as well, producing excellent wines.
Kydonitsa is also blended with other varieties to create PDO Monemvassia-Malvasia wines.
Lagorthi
Indigenous of Achaia, Lagorthi is planted mainly in northern Peloponnese.
It produces wines with a very soft yellow-silver colour and a rather discrete nose focusing on elegance, minerality and florality. Their fine mouth is clear, with intense acidity and low alcohol, sometimes even lower than 12%. Lagorthi wines can age in bottles for two or three years to acquire complexity and an even more mineral character.
Monemvassia
Monemvassia originates from Laconia and has been named after the wonderful Monemvassia castle.
Monemvassia is the only Greek white variety that can be found both in white dry and in red PDO wines, as well as in sweet white PDO wines.
It was only at the beginning of the 21st century that the sweet wine PDO Monemvassia-Malvasia was established after long scientific research. As a result, one of the most famous wines that ever appeared in the world revived: the Malvasia wine, which mainly consists of the Monemvassia variety.
Monemvassia yields wines with citrus and white-fleshed fruit aromas. These aromas prevail in the sweet PDO wines Monemvassia-Malvasia, which are also enriched with the quince aromas of the Kydonitsa variety. Their intensely sweet taste often has a mineral character and is balanced due the acidity of the refreshing Monemvassia, but mainly due to the Assyrtiko variety, which is also included in the blend.
Asproudes
Asproudes is most probably a group of white varieties and not a single one. In fact, Asproudes are white varieties who have not been identified but are used in wine production, the variety of Tinaktorogos possibly being one of them. We can find Asproudes all over Peloponnese, especially its central part. They are used for PDO Mantinia wines, in which case a small quantity of them is allowed for their production.
Assyrtiko
Originating from Santorini, Assyrtiko is a world-class white grape variety. It has been planted in many parts of mainland Greece and Peloponnese. Its high acidity, along with other features, makes it a useful choice for blends. An example would be the sweet PDO Monemvassia-Malvasia wine.
Volitsa
One of the most rare and unexplored Greek grape varieties, Volitsa is occasionally found in Peloponnese, mainly on its highland vineyards. There is red and white Volitsa.
Malagouzia
Although it disappeared in the 1970s, Malagouzia revived in the 21st century, showing the dynamics reflected by particular Greek varieties. As a popular aromatic white variety, it was widely planted in many areas, including Peloponnese. It produces dry and a few sweet wines, usually with an explosive fruity and herbal nose, with aromatic taste and a moderate to refreshing acidity which fascinates lovers of style.
Petroulianos
Petroulianos is a white variety originating from Peloponnese, where it is also cultivated. It has a low acidity and thus is mainly used in blends of sweet wines.
Rokaniaris
Rokaniaris has yielded few examples of white wine, all coming from Peloponnese and having a somewhat refreshing acidity.
Tinaktorogos
It is a very rare variety which stood out in plantations in Ilia, as late as in the 21st century. Tinaktorogos possibly belongs to the Asproudes family and can produce wines of a distinct personality.
Fileri
Just like its name suggests, the rose-coloured Fileri is related to Moschofilero but is less aromatic, since Moschofilero’s aroma is one of the greatest. It is cultivated in central Greece and Peloponnese vineyards, with the unique varietal samples of white or rosé wines coming from the latter.
Sklava
White Sklava is a very old vine variety from Peloponnese, originating from Corinth and Argolis, that nearly ceased to exist. It is known for its aromas evoking white-fleshed fruits, some hints of herbs, and mouth of medium acidity.

VARIETIES FOR RED WINES

Agiorgitiko
Agiorgitiko is one of the two emblematic red grape varieties in Greece and the most important in Peloponnese. Also, it is one of the four Greek vine varieties boasting the most dynamic presence for Greece in international wine markets.
Agiorgitiko is a multi-dimensional variety; it produces rosé wines, red tank wines (fresh), short or long-aging red wines, some aged in barrels, semi-sweet and sweet wines, and lately sparkling wines.
The wine-producing zone of Nemea in Corinth is the kingdom of Agiorgitiko, which is also planted elsewhere in Peloponnese, in Greece and beyond. Nemea, producing the PDO Nemea wine, is the largest designation of origin zone for red wine in Greece.
The fresh tank wines from Agiorgitiko are relatively dark red and have an intense aroma of red fruits. Their mouth has medium acidity and the tannins are soft. Those aged in barrels are usually more dark-coloured and more complex in terms of aromas, with a quite complex nose. Their rich taste is accompanied by relatively soft tannins, usually of very good quality, while their aging capacity varies from some years to more than ten.
Mavrodaphne
It was around the mid-19th century when the German Gustav Clauss vinified the first Mavrodaphne just outside Patras. Mavrodaphne is a red grape variety with a long history in the production of sweet wines and a promising future in red dry wine production.
Peloponnese, especially its NW part, features the largest percentage of Mavrodaphne vineyards. Mavrodaphne is the main varietal producing the wine that bears the same name, i.e. PDO Mavrodaphne of Patras. The sweet red wines PDO Mavrodaphne of Patras are well-known and have the potential to be among the best of this type in Greece, which is famous for its sweet wines. Moreover, red dry wines from Mavrodaphne show the great potential of this varietal for this type of wine.
Dark red, almost black, sweet red wines from Mavrodaphne have concentrated the aromas of currants, black berries and prunes. They have a mouth high in alcohol (warm wines) and are probably of average acidity. The sweet sensation of alcohol and sugars is balanced by Mavrodaphne’s tannins. Mavrodaphne dry red wines are somewhat similar to the Italian Amarone, which misses the sweet element of Mavrodaphne though.
Avgoustiatis
Avgoustiatis is cultivated in a small area in Peloponnese, particularly in its western part, near wonderful beaches and ancient Olympia.
The red variety Avgoustiatis produces impressive, good-quality wines, mostly red and rarely rosé. Avgoustiatis wines have a dark red colour, deep and vibrant, and their aromas are intense. They evoke the taste of ripe red fruits, various Mediterranean herbs and leather. The majority of these wines mature in a barrel and obtain a round, medium body, with elegant tannins, while at the same time they have a moderate to high alcohol content.
Vertzami
Vertzami can be found in Western Greece, and rarely in Western Peloponnese. It is a rare and unexplored red variety, which has produced impressive wines in terms of aromas, taste and colour. They are ideal for maturation in barrels, and even for long aging in bottles.
Voidomatis
A red grape variety, randomly planted in Peloponnese, Voidomatis is characterized by its outstanding colour dynamics.
Volitsa
One of the most rare and unexplored Greek grape varieties, Volitsa is occasionally found in Peloponnese, mainly on its highland vineyards. There is red and white Volitsa.
Thrapsa
Thrapsa is a very rare red variety which is planted in very few places in Peloponnese. It shouldn’t be mistaken for the Thrapsathiri variety.
Kolliniatiko
The colour dynamics of the red variety Kolliniatiko is rich, yet the variety is not really used. Lately, the variety has been systematically planted by wineries in Arcadia. Kolliniatiko can be found in central Peloponnese and its name probably originates from the village of Kollines, on the boundaries of Arcadia and Laconia.
Black Kalavrytino
Black Kalavrytino is a red variety indigenous to Kalavryta and the highlands of Aigialia. It is a variety that produces moderate-coloured wines, several tannins, medium to full body and aromas that resemble red and black fruits, flowers and spices. Wines of this variety seem to have the potential to evolve for a few years in the bottle. It can be found in single-varietal wines and blends with native and international varieties.
Black Corinth
Black Corinth is no other than the famous currant, which is usually dried. It is one of the most important agricultural Greek products with a very long history, and one of the best Greek edible souvenirs which can be easily transferred and no fridge is required, because of its sugars. The small amount of Black Corinth currant that is not sold for direct consumption, after being sun-dried for a few days, is blended with Mavrodaphne to produce the famous sweet Greek wine PDO Mavrodaphne of Patras.
Petrokoritho
A red variety that produces exuberant wines, in the rare occasion that is vinified.

Native grape varieties
of the Kefalonia vineyard

VARIETIES FOR WHITE WINES

Robola
Robola is the delicate queen of the Kefalonia vineyard, and PDO Robola wines consist of 100% of Robola. It thrives in barren and mountainous soil, it is vulnerable and sensitive to drought. It yields white wines with a white-green colour with yellow-gold hues, depending on the bottling method.
The aroma of Robola is characterized by citrus flowers and peach, citrus and apple fruits, which are intense but not aggressive, leaving a satisfying intensity and lasting aroma. This wine has a light to medium body, with characteristic acidity. It must be consumed within two years from the date of production.
Goustolidi
It is also called Avgoustolidi, Vostolidi, Vostilidi and Goustoulidi. It is a white variety with a special character, cultivated on the islands of the Ionian Sea and the Peloponnese, producing thick wines with mature aromas.
Moscatela
An aromatic white variety from Kefalonia. Its aroma resembles that of Muscat, however it is a relative to the French variety Muscadelle. It usually complements other varieties blended to produce dry and sweet wines.
Tsaousi
High-yielding white-grape variety met on the Ionian Islands, mainly Kefalonia and less often in northern Greece.
Tsaousi is usually used in blends to contribute with its aroma.

VARIETIES FOR RED WINES

Mavrodaphne of Kefalonia
The variety Mavrodaphne of Kefalonia is a different small-berried clone compared to Mavrodaphne of Patras. It produces the PDO Mavrodahpne of Kefalonia wines (100% Mavrodahpne of Kefalonia). This variety also produces dry red wines.

International grape varieties

VARIETIES FOR WHITE WINES

Viognier
A rare varietal worldwide, Viognier is nicely hosted in Peloponnesian vineyards and has few yet good samples of plantations and wines here. In Peloponnese white Viognier wines maintain some of the features they are famous for, like their fruity, flowery and spicy aromas and their soft mouth with density.
Gewurztraminer
The presence of the highly exotic Gewurztraminer in Peloponnese is limited, yet its quality is great. It maintains the explosive nose, with the exoticism and the rich mouth of its white wines.
Chardonnay
Possibly the most famous white grape variety in the world, Chardonnay thrives in Peloponnese as well. It is not only widely spread, but has also acclimatized so well in the area of Trifilia that even the natives consider it to be one of their own varieties. The fairly warm climate of the area and the sun gives Chardonnay wines exotic aromas and rich taste with volume, which expresses Peloponnesian terroirs.
Sauvignon Blanc
Despite the warm Greek climate, Sauvignon Blanc thrives and offers good wines when planted in coolest, even mountainous vineyards of Peloponnese and beyond. In Peloponnese it manages to maintain its widely-loved profile with its explosive and refreshingly aromatic character and crisp acidity. The features of the Peloponnese vineyards and the state-of-the-art wine-making technology make Sauvignon Blancs more exotic and mature here, although they maintain their high acidity and rich herbal aromas.
Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc)
Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc) is cultivated in different parts of Peloponnese and in the rest of Greece and is mostly used in wine blends to increase their acidity.

VARIETIES FOR RED WINES

Cabernet Sauvignon
For some, Cabernet Sauvignon is the best red varietal worldwide. This top French varietal has found its way in Peloponnese as well, being at its best in the area of Trifilia, Messinia. In Peloponnese it is found as a single variety but also in blends, often with Agiorgitiko, adding a wild and restless character, and giving higher aromatic complexity, that can be compared to the well-known Italian wines “Super Tuscans”.
Merlot
Merlot is the second most popular French red grape variety in the world after Cabernet Sauvignon and has found some plantation spots in Peloponnese, mainly in its more wet vineyards, since it loves humidity. It produces some single-variety wines, once of very high in quality, and is used in several blends.
Pinot noir
Although it has a different aromatic and taste profile, Pinot noir is limited in Peloponnese, yet produces red wines which definitely maintain the nobility of the variety.
Refosco
Refosco is a historical variety for Peloponnese since it was imported from Italy by a particular winery in the 19th century and thus was widely spread across its western part.
Syrah
Although Syrah has given great wines in many parts of Greece, it is not widely cultivated in Peloponnese. However, there is a substantial number of Syrah vineyards producing very good to top results, thanks to the authenticity of Peloponnesian vineyards allowing Syrah to develop its exuberant characteristics.

Mr Manolis Stavrakakis, professor at the Agricultural University of Athens, has estimated that there are 104 cultivated native grape varieties in Peloponnese, 92 of which are intended for winemaking.

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